Standard pedigree conventions

Circles represent females and squares designate males. A diamond indicates unknown sex.

Individuals exhibiting the phenotype ("affected") have shaded symbols.

If the parents are related (consanguineous, such as first cousins), they are connected by a double line.

Offspring are called sibs (siblings) and are connected by a horizontal sibship line.

A number in a symbol represents numerous sibs of the same phenotypes.

A proband (p) is the first known affected individual in the pedigree, indicated by an arrow.