Somatic Cel Hybridization

Cells from the leaves of plants can be treated to remove their cell wall, resulting in protoplasts.

These can be fused with protoplasts from a different species in culture, producing somatic hybrid cells that are amphidiploids.

Sometimes entire plants can be derived from cultured protoplasts.

If only stems and leaves are produced, these can be grafted onto the stem of another plant.

If flowers are formed, fertilization may yield seeds which germinate into mature plants.