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Part 1: Genes, Chromosomes, and Heredity An Introduction to Genetics Review
  1. In most organisms, the hereditary material is Deoxyribonucleic Acid ( ). In eukaryotes, DNA is found mainly in the nucleus in chromosomes bound with .
  2. Somatic cells divide by , where each daughter cell receives a set of chromosomes, one set from each parent.
  3. Gametes (sperm and eggs) are produced by and contain a (single) set of chromosomes.
  4. According to the theory of inheritance, traits are inherited by residing on chromosomes and transmitted through .
  5. A gene and may have several versions, called , that are caused by changes in the DNA called . The kind of alleles an individual possesses is called its .
  6. DNA has a helix structure, comprising two strands each made up of subunits called .
  7. According to the central of genetics, is transcribed to , which is translated into .
  8. The genetic code consists of nucleotides present in . Each triplet encodes for insertion of a specific acid into a growing chain.
  9. The process of producing a via the central dogma is called gene ; the action of proteins play an important role in determining the of an individual.
  10. The use of organisms has allowed us to understand the genetic basis of inheritance and diseases in humans.
  11. Advances in DNA technology has enabled the science of to study the entire of a species.
  12. A basic technique in molecular DNA manipulation is using enzymes to produce DNA and cloning of desired genes.
  13. Applications of biotechnology include:
  14. Other applications of genetics include elucidating the evolutionary relationships between species and solving crimes.
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