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Part 1: Genes, Chromosomes, and Heredity Mendelian Genetics Review
  1. Gregor Mendel chose the garden pea as his model system because it grows easily to maturity in one season, and can be artificially.
  2. Mendel examined seven visible characteristics (traits), each with two contrasting , using true-breeding parental strains.
  3. These crosses are called since they involve a single pair of contrasting traits. These crosses are also since the sex of the parents did not affect the outcomes.
  4. The original parents are the generation, and their offspring are the generation. Offspring arising from (self-fertilizing) the F1 generation are the generation.
  5. To explain the results of his monohybrid crosses, Mendel proposed three postulates that form the basis for Mendelian or genetics.
    1. Traits are inherited in factors (genes) which exist in pairs.
    2. One form of each unit factor is for the trait and the other is .
    3. The paired unit factors (separate) independently during gamete formation.
  6. The is the genetic makeup of an individual. The is the physical expression of the genotype.
  7. Alternative forms of a are called . If the two alleles for a trait in an individual are the same, the individual is , otherwise the individual is .
  8. A square is a tool to analyze and predict the ratios of and of a monohybrid cross.
  9. A with a homozygous individual can be used to determine whether an organism displaying the phenotype is homozygous or heterozygous for that trait.
  10. A cross involves two pairs of contrasting traits. Mendel proposed a postulate from his dihybrid crosses:
    1. Traits independently during gamete formation.
  11. Mendel's laws are based on probability, and simple mathematical and laws of and can be used to find various combinations in crosses.
    • The probability of allele frequencies in the is the of the probabilities of allele frequencies in the .
    • The frequency probabilities of multiple allele combinations is the of the frequency probabilities of the individual alleles.
  12. A shows a family tree with respect to a given trait, and is a valuable tool in human genetic studies.
  13. Mendel's principles of independent and independent can be explained by the modern theory of heredity and events that occur during .
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