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Part 1: Genes, Chromosomes, and Heredity Genetic Analysis and Mapping in Bacteria and Bacteriophages Review
  1. Bacterial growth can be divided into three phases: phase, phase ( growth), and phase.
  2. Cells grown in liquid medium can be quantified by the serial technique.
  3. Bacteria can undergo , in which genetic information from one bacterium is transferred to another, resulting in in the latter.
  4. F+ cells contain a (F) factor that has genes for sex formation and allows the host to donate DNA during . Recipient cells are usually converted to F+.
  5. An (high-frequency recombination) strain has an F factor, and can donate DNA in an fashion to an F- cell.
  6. Sometimes, an F factor is from the chromosome of an Hfr cell, producing an cell. Transfer of an F' to an F- cell results in a .
  7. such as Factors contain one or more genes and replicate independently of the bacterial chromosome. plasmids confer antibiotic resistance.
  8. Bacteria can also undergo genetic recombination by , in which pieces of extracellular DNA are taken up by a cell and into the chromosome.
  9. (phages) such as T4 are viruses that infect a host bacterium and use the host enzymes to reproduce.
  10. The number of phages produced following the infection of bacteria can be determined by the assay.
  11. Sometimes a phage integrates its DNA into the bacterial chromosome in a process called , and the viral DNA ( ) is replicated with the host DNA.
  12. Bacteriophages can mediate genetic in their bacterial hosts in a process called .
    • In transduction, DNA instead of DNA is packaged in a phage particle and transferred to a recipient host.
  13. mapping in bacteriophages can be done by examining phage mutations that affect plaque .
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