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Part 2: DNA Structure, Replication, and Variation DNA Structure and Analysis Review
  1. The model for genetic expression is summarized in the central of molecular genetics: genetic information flows from to to .
  2. The building blocks of nucleic acids are , which consist of a base, a sugar, and a group.
    • The bases can be or .
    • A nitrogenous base and a sugar make up a .
    • A nucleoside and a phosphate group make up a .
  3. A nucleotide is also called a nucleoside . Adding one or two phosphate groups results in nucleoside and , respectively.
  4. Nucleotides are linked by a bond between the phosphate group at the position and the OH group on the position.
  5. Two strands of DNA polynucleotides form a helix, which are to each other.
  6. Most RNA is stranded and synthesized from a complementary strand of .
  7. Nucleic acids can be separated and analyzed by sedimentation centrifugation and sedimentation centrifugation.
  8. DNA base composition can also be estimated by measuring shift during DNA .
  9. Denatured and other single-stranded nucleic acids can be by cooling. This allows for molecular of nucleic acids from different sources.
  10. Fluorescent in situ ( FISH ) can be used to identify the chromosomal location of a DNA segment.
  11. kinetics show the size and complexity of genomic DNA.
  12. Nucleic acid fragments can be separated by gel .
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