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Part 3: Expression and Regulation of Genetic Information The Genetic Code and Transcription Review
  1. The genetic code is composed of triplets of that make up , each of which specifies one amino acid.
  2. The triplet nature of the code was first revealed by mutations.
    • The genetic code was first cracked by using artificial RNA in an translation system to synthesize polypeptides.
    • Next, RNA were used to discover the base composition of more codons.
    • Then, the binding assay was used to determine other specific codon assignments.
    • Finally, repeating were used to complete the construction of the genetic code.
  3. The genetic code is , and exhibits pairing at the third codon position.
  4. The genetic code is nearly universal, with minor such as those found in mitochondrial DNA.
  5. In some viruses, different initiation points lead to genes.
  6. Studies with bacteriophage infection provided initial evidence that serves as the intermediate molecule between DNA and proteins.
  7. Transcription begins with template binding by polymerase at an site upstream to the gene called the .
  8. Eukaryotes possess three forms of polymerase, each of which transcribes different types of genes.
  9. The initial transcript in eukaryotes is a that must be processed by splicing together the to produce the mature mRNA.
  10. Introns are removed by splicing together the by ( group I and II) or by (group III ).
  11. The size of the mature is usually much smaller than that of the initial RNA transcript.
  12. Transcription can now be visualized using electron microscopy.
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