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Part 4: Genomic Analysis Translation and Proteins Review
  1. Translation requires acids, RNA (mRNA), ribosomes, and RNA ( tRNA ).
  2. Each tRNA is "charged" with a specific amino acid by 20 different aminoacyl tRNA .
  3. Translation of mRNA can be divided into three steps.
    • requires the and ribosomal subunits, GTP, initiator tRNA, and initiation .
    • requires both ribosomal subunits assembled with the mRNA to form the site and site.
    • is signaled by a codon (UAG, UAA, UGA) in the A site.
  4. A mRNA molecule can have several simultaneously translating the message, forming ( polysomes ).
    Review: interactive polypeptide coding, translation steps, animation.
  5. Studies of mutations that result in heritable human diseases such as and provided first insight into the role of proteins in genetic processes.
  6. Studies of mutations in Neurospora led to the one-gene:one- hypothesis.
  7. Studies of human showed that one gene encodes one .
    • Humans possess different hemoglobin polypeptide genes; two of which are expressed at different times in development
  8. The order of nucleotides in a gene is with the order of amino acids in the corresponding polypeptide.
  9. Amino acids are composed of a group, an group, and an R group bound to a central atom.
  10. The structure of a polypeptide is the sequence of amino acids formed by linking them together by bonds.
  11. Proteins may also exhibit additional levels of structure: secondary, tertiary, and quaternary.
  12. Proteins play diverse roles in the body.
    • Hemoglobin binds to and transports , which is essential for cellular metabolism.
    • Collagen and keratin are proteins.
    • Actin and myosin are proteins in muscle tissue.
    • ( antibodies ) recognize "foreign" particles in the immune system.
    • Transport proteins move molecules across .
    • Some and their receptors are proteins.
    • bind to DNA in eukaryotic organisms.
    • Enzymes act as in biological reactions.
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