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Part 4: Genomic Analysis Applications and Ethics of Biotechnology Review
  1. Genetic disorders can be diagnosed prenatally by followed by restriction fragment length (RFLP) diagnosis.
  2. Allele-specific (ASOs) can be used to identify alleles that differ by a single nucleotide, without using radioactive isotopes..
    • ASOs have been used to produce DNA in which expression of thousands of genes can be examined on a single chip.
    • can be used to detect some forms of cancer.
    • Genome using microarrays that carry all the genes in the human makes it possible to analyze an individual's DNA for many disease alleles.
  3. Genes can be mapped directly to metaphase chromosomes using fluorescent in situ (FISH).
  4. Moderately repetitive DNA sequences in the human genome called (VNTRs) and (STRs) provide polymorphisms for use as genetic markers.
    • Variable-number repeats (VNTRs) can be used as probes for DNA .
    • Short repeats (STRs) are used for forensic work to generate DNA profiles from trace samples.
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