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Part 1: Genes, Chromosomes, and Heredity Extensions of Mendelian Genetics Review
  1. Alternative forms of a gene are called ; the allele that occurs most frequently in nature is called the type.
  2. A (change in the DNA) that causes the reduction or loss of a wild-type function is called a loss of mutation. If the loss is complete, the allele that results in a allele.
  3. Some loci exhibit dominance, where neither allele is dominant.
  4. Some genes exhibit , where both alleles contribute to the phenotype of a . An example is the blood group.
  5. Some traits are controlled by alleles. Examples include the human blood group and the locus in Drosophila.
  6. A loss of mutation may behave as a recessive allele in the homozygous state, but exhibit a separate phenotype in a heterozygote.
  7. Genes present on the chromosome exhibit unique patterns of inheritance due to the presence of only one X chromosome in males.
  8. Some phenotypes are affected by sex and can be either sex - if the phenotype is restricted to one sex, or sex - if restriction is not absolute.
  9. Phenotypic expression may also be influenced by the as well as by genotype and result in variation in the and of the genotype.
    • One component of the is genetic , such as the position effect.
    • Another component of the is temperature, and many phenotypes show temperature sensitivity.
  10. In cases of genomic , phenotypic expression may depend on the origin of the chromosome.
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